JavaScript vs Python: Understand the Key Differences

In this modern technological world, learning programming languages is essential for developing websites, software applications, and more.

Nowadays, Python and JavaScript are considered the two most widely utilized programming languages. However, both of them are used for several purposes and also have some major key differences.

Python’s ease of use has earned it a reputation as a programming language suitable for both beginners and experts. Whereas, the dynamic language JavaScript excels at building interactive interfaces and web pages.

In this post, we will compare Python and JavaScript based on various parameters, including syntax, performance, community support, and job market prospects, to assist you in selecting the language that is most appropriate for your project.

What is Python?

In 1991, Guido van Rossum created a high-level, Object-Oriented Programming language and named it Python. The combination of its dynamic binding, built-in data structures, and typing makes it an ideal option for rapid application development. It also offers support to packages and modules, enabling code reusability and system modularity.

Moreover, it is one of the fastest programming languages as it needs only a few code blocks to perform the actual functionality. Beginners can easily grasp the concepts of Python language because of its simple and readable nature.

Features of Python

Here, we have enlisted some of the crucial features of Python:

  • Python language is easy to learn, read, and maintain.
  • It provides built-in modules and functions.
  • It can run on different hardware platforms making it a cross-platform language.
  • It offers an ideal structure for large applications or programs.
  • It has active community support.

What is JavaScript?

JS, abbreviated as JavaScript is a scripting language mainly utilized for developing interactive and dynamic content. It was deployed by Brendan Eich in 1995. JS follows the client-side programming rules. Therefore, it can run in the browser of the user without requiring particular resources from the web server.

Nowadays, JavaScript is one of the most widely used programming languages, not only operating in browsers but also on IoT devices, servers, and more. Moreover, other technologies like XML, REST APIs, and Node.js can be also integrated with it.

Features of JavaScript

Check out the given list of some of the essential JavaScript features:

  • It is a client-side scripting language.
  • It offers extensive libraries and frameworks.
  • It is an excellent choice for developing interactive user interfaces and web pages.
  • JavaScript is compatible with all web browsers.
  • It is easy to learn and use.
  • It supports both functional and object-oriented paradigms.
  • You can use JavaScript for both front-end and back-end development.

Key Differences Between Python and JavaScript

Both Python and JavaScript are powerful languages that have their own pros and cons. If you want to choose between the two, look at the given table that has compiled the key differences between them.

Parameters Python JavaScript
Syntax Python follows a simple and easy-to-read syntax as compared to JavaScript. JavaScript syntax is quite similar to Java and C++, having curly braces and semicolons.
Object-Oriented Programming Python supports OOP concepts, such as inheritance, polymorphism, and encapsulation. JavaScript is a prototype-based language and it utilizes prototypes for implementing the concepts of OOP.
Typing Since Python is a dynamically typed language, variable types are not declared and can be changed at runtime. JavaScript is also dynamically typed and it also offers the option of static typing via libraries like TypeScript.
Performance Python is an interpreted language and it operates slower than JavaScript. Due to the Just-In-Time (JIT) compilation feature, JavaScript performs way better as compared with Python.
Run-time Python code is first compiled into bytecode and then interpreted by the Python interpreter. On the other hand, JavaScript is first compiled into bytecode and then executed by the JavaScript engine.
Memory Management The automatic memory management feature of Python automatically releases or frees up space when a variable is no longer required. JavaScript also automatically manages the memory, however, it utilizes garbage collection for managing memory allocation and deallocation.
Error-handling Python uses try-except blocks for implementing a more consistent and simpler error-handling system. Whereas JavaScript has a more complex error-handling mechanism based on optional callbacks and try-catch blocks.
Multi-threading With the help of the Global Interpreter Lock (GIL), only one thread can execute Python code at once. With the help of web workers and other techniques, JavaScript offers better support for Multi-threading and can handle multiple tasks simultaneously.
Debugging In addition to an interactive debugger, Python also supports debugging tools like PyCharm and pdb. Most online browsers have debugging tools for JavaScript, and additional tools like Chrome DevTools and Firebug can also be used.
Learning Curve Python is simpler to learn for beginners due to its simpler syntax and small feature set. JavaScript has an inclined learning curve due to its complex syntax and wide range of functionalities and features.
Frameworks and Libraries Python provides support for several powerful libraries and frameworks for tasks related to data analysis and machine learning. JavaScript offers an extensive collection of frameworks and libraries for developing web applications, and front-end development.
Community Python has a larger active community as it has been deployed in the market for more than three decades. The JavaScript community is also growing. However, in terms of activity and size, Python is the winner in this regard.

Note: Remember that various factors may have an impact on the performance, syntax, and other aspects of Python and JavaScript. For instance, the usage of libraries, the environment in which code is executed, and the requirements and background of the user.

Python VS JavaScript: Syntax Structure

In programming, syntax structure defines the way the code has been written and organized, including the usage of punctuation, whitespaces, and syntax rules.

Python uses whitespace indentation for representing the code blocks, which signifies that the code blocks are indented to the right to indicate that they are part of a certain code block.

if 8 > 3:
    print("Eight is greater than Three")

On the other hand, a JavaScript code block is defined using the curly braces {}.

if (8 > 3) {
    console.log("Eight is greater than Three");

Python VS JavaScript: Data Types

Based on the program requirements, different types of data that can be used in a programming language, such as integers, strings, and booleans.

Both Python and JavaScript support some similar data types like strings, integers, and booleans. However, Python also has additional data types like dictionaries and tuples.

Python Data Types

# Strings
my_string = "Hi, TecMint Reader"

# Integers
my_int = 1

# Booleans
my_bool = True

# Tuple
my_tuple = (7, 8, 9)

# Dictionary
my_dict = {"name": "Sharqa", "id": 1}

JavaScript Data Types

// Strings
let myString = "Hi, TecMint Reader";

// Integers
let myInt = 1;

// Booleans
let myBool = true;

Python VS JavaScript: Variable Declaration

Variables store values that can be used throughout the program. More specifically, Python utilized the equals sign (=) for assigning values to variables.

name = "Sharqa"
id = 1

In JavaScript, the var keyword was traditionally used to declare variables, but let and const are now preferred.

var name = "Sharqa";
let id = 1;
const PI = 3.14;

Note that, you can reassign the value of the variables declared with the let keyword, while the value of the variable declared with const cannot be reassigned.

Python VS JavaScript: Functions

A function is a reusable block of code that can be invoked or called again to perform a specific operation. To define a function in Python, use the def keyword with the function name and the required parameters.

def message(name):
    print("Hello, " + name + "!")

message("TecMint Reader")

In JavaScript, you can define functions with the function keyword or as arrow functions.

Using Function Keyword

function message(name) {
  console.log(`Hello, ${name}!`);

message("GeeksVeda Reader");

Using Arrow Function

const sum= (x, y) => x + y;

sum(2, 2);

Python VS JavaScript: Loops

Loops are utilized for repeating a block of code until the specified condition is met. Python uses for loop and while loop.

# for loop
for i in range(10):

# while loop
i = 0
while i < 10:
    i += 1

Whereas, JavaScript can run for, while, and also do-while loops.

// for loop
for (let i = 0; i < 10; i++) {

// while loop
let i = 0;
while (i < 10) {

// do-while loop
let j = 0;
do {
} while (j < 10);

Python VS JavaScript: Conditional Statements

Conditional statements are used in scenarios where there is a need to run a specific code block if only the defined condition is evaluated as true. Both JavaScript and Python work with similar conditional statements, such as switch statement and if-else statements. However, Python utilizes elif for multiple conditions and JavaScript uses else if.

Python Conditional Statements

a = 3
if a > 8:
    print("a is greater than 8")
elif a == 3:
    print("a is equal to 3")
    print("a is less than 3")

JavaScript Conditional Statements

let a = 12;
if (a > 10) {
    console.log("a is greater than 10");
} else if (a > 15) {
    console.log("a is greater than 15");
} else {
    console.log("a is less than or equal to 5");

Python VS JavaScript: Comments

Adding comments in a program assists in explaining code and making it more readable for other developers. More specifically, Python uses the # symbol for single-line comments and opening and closing triple quotes """ for multi-line comments.

# This is a single-line comment in Python

This is a multi-line comment in Python.
It can span across multiple lines.

Whereas, JavaScript uses // for adding single-line comments and /* */ for multi-line comments.

// This is a single-line comment in JavaScript

This is a multi-line comment in JavaScript.
It can span across multiple lines.

Python VS JavaScript Use Cases

In this section, we have compiled some of the major use cases of Python and JavaScript.

Python Used For

  • Web development (Flask, Django, Pyramid).
  • Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (PyTorch, TensorFlow, Scikit-learn).
  • Scientific computing and data analysis (Pandas, NumPy, Matplotlib).
  • DevOps and automation (Fabric, Ansible, SaltStack).
  • Desktop GUI applications (PyQt, Tkinter, wxPython).
  • Scripting and automation (e.g. System Administration, Network Automation).
  • Education (e.g. teaching programming concepts).
  • Finance and trading (e.g. Trading Algorithms, Quantitative Finance).
  • Content management systems (e.g. Django CMS, Plone).
  • Image and video processing (e.g. scikit-image, OpenCV).

JavaScript Used For

  • Mobile app development (Ionic, React Native).
  • Web development (Angular, React, Vue.js)
  • Server-side web development (Node.js)
  • Desktop app development (Electron)
  • Game development (Three.js, Phaser)
  • Interactive web interfaces (e.g. jQuery, D3.js)
  • Internet of Things (IoT) development (e.g. Cylon.js, Johnny-Five)
  • Social media apps (e.g. Facebook, Twitter)
  • Chatbots and virtual assistants (e.g., Dialogflow)
  • Web-based games (e.g. Babylon.js, Phaser)

Python VS JavaScript: Usage Statistics

In May 2022, Stack Overflow Developer Survey was conducted comprising 70,000 respondents. According to its figures, JavaScript (65.36%) is still considered the leading programming language. Moreover, 2022 was also marked as the tenth year in a row of JavaScript being the most commonly used programming language.

On the other hand, the popularity of Python (48.07%) has also increased significantly over the last couple of years. It has also outranked languages, such as PHP, C#, C++, Java, etc.

Stack Overflow Developer Survey
Stack Overflow Developer Survey

However, check the other side of the picture for those respondents who want to learn to code. According to the given statistics, HTML/CSS (62.59%) is the first, JavaScript (59.79%) is second, and Python (58.38%) is third almost tied as the most popular language among the respondents who want to learn to code.

StackOverflow Developer Survey -Learning to Code
StackOverflow Developer Survey -Learning to Code

Python VS JavaScript Job Market

Python is primarily utilized in machine learning, data analysis, scientific computing, and web development. Moreover, due to the growing popularity of data science and artificial intelligence, there has been a considerable growth in the demand for Python developers in recent years. Some of the top companies hiring Python developers include Microsoft, Google, Facebook, and Amazon.

JavaScript is widely utilized for mobile and web app development. Nowadays, there is a high demand for JavaScript developers due to the use of web-based technologies.

More specifically, the job titles for JavaScript developers include web developer, software engineer, full-stack developer, and mobile app developer in the popular companies which are mentioned above and others.

Note that the job market and general trends for Python and JavaScript can vary depending on the industry, your location, and other factors.


Python is popular in data analysis, scientific computing, machine learning, and automation, because of its readability and simplicity. Whereas, the flexibility and interactivity of JavaScript make it valuable to utilize in the development of websites, mobile applications, and back-end systems.

However, the selection between Python and JavaScript depends on your personal preferences. So, choose what’s more suitable for you!

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